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What does riparian mean? Where is the most effective location for buffers in a watershed?
How long does it take for a buffer to reach its maximum efficiency? Do buffers really reduce nitrogen and other chemical loading to streams?
Haven't nitrate levels always been high in Iowa and other Midwestern states surface waters? Do trees and shrubs really stabilize streambanks?
Can grasses be planted first right along the bank to minimize trees falling into the channel? What should be planted if all or part of the riparian zone is in reed canary grass?
Don't trees plug tiles? What are the shallowest rooted trees and shrubs that can planted so they can be removed at a later date if necessary?
Can direct seeding or natural regeneration be used to establish a buffer? Don't trees attract beavers and don't they hinder water movement?
Do buffers attract undesirable wildlife species (e.g. coyotes, deer, rodents, insects)? Don't buffers act as sources of seed for noxious weeds?
Isn't there a problem with the buffers ponding water as a result of levee formation along their edge and/or sediment trapping? Or how do you keep concentrated flow channels from developing through the buffer? Do buffers require maintenance?
Can buffers be grazed for short periods? What provisions can be made for livestock access to water?
Are wetlands really effective in reducing nitrate and other chemicals? Do wetlands work during cold weather?
How much land is going to be taken out of 'production' if buffers are installed? Wouldn't it be easier or better to straighten the stream and rip-rap the stream banks than leave it in its meandering form?
What kind of government incentives are available for establishing buffers? Are there products that can be derived from buffers?